The mountains are captivating, inspiring, but also deadly. While it’s generally safe to explore the hills with the right preparation, there are a lot of easy mistakes that quickly lead to disaster. Our brains are really good at leading us into poor decisions, especially when we’re dealing with 30% less oxygen than normal. Here are five mistakes you should avoid when spending time in the mountains.
1) Don’t use Shortcuts – They do not exist.
Of all the mistakes you can make, leaving the established route puts you in the most immediate risk. On most 14ers, especially the more difficult peaks, shortcuts do not exist. If they did, they would just be the standard route. Leaving the established path can quickly put you in Class 3 or 4 climbing on loose, unstable rock. Sometimes, you may end up cliffed out with a steep drop-off below, and loose rock above.
As you climb, take time to stop periodically and look around to ensure you’re where you should be. Social, non-official trails and cairns are easy to accidentally follow and get off track. If you think you’ve already wandered off the trail, try to identify the way back, or backtrack if needed. If you cannot get back safely, don’t try it. Stop and call for help (See point number 5!)
2) Bring the Ten Essentials, Always.
The ten essentials are just that: essential. They allow you to act positively in response to an emergency, instead of relying on someone else to come save you. They are essential for self-reliance and surviving an unplanned night in the mountains. If you’re not familiar with this list, they include:
- Navigation: Map, altimeter, compass, [GPS device], [PLB or satellite communicators], [extra batteries or battery pack]
- Headlamp: Plus extra batteries
- Sun protection: Sunglasses, sun-protective clothes, and sunscreen
- First aid: Including foot care and insect repellent (if required)
- Knife: Plus repair kit
- Fire: Matches, lighter and tinder, or stove as appropriate
- Shelter: Carried at all times (can be light emergency bivy)
- Extra food: Beyond minimum expectation
- water: Beyond minimum expectation, or the means to purify
- Extra clothes: Beyond minimum expectation
3) Keep Your Gear with You at All Times
Gear weighs a lot. The more you hike and climb, the more this fact will become clear. Eventually, many hikers get complacent as they notice they rarely need emergency gear. This leads to all kinds of poor decision-making about gear. Some hikers drop their gear at treeline to sprint up to the summit with less weight. Yet this is the precise point where you’re most likely to need your gear. Just this fall, a climber on Mt. Shavano dropped his gear at treeline, only to get lost on his descent. While he was rescued, he lost both legs – a steep price to pay. Fight the temptation to drop your gear or leave some of it at home to shed a few pounds. Even if you’ve gone without something 99 times, you may still need it the next trip.
4) Watch the Weather & Adapt Accordingly
While hiking, don’t forget to keep an eye on weather conditions around you. We focus so much on the trail and peaks that it is easy to miss a thunderstorm sneaking up on you. Whenever you take a water break, make sure to do a 360 degree check of the sky to look for signs of forming thunderclouds. Vertical clouds are a big warning sign, along with darker clouds and low pressure. If the signs are present of impending storms, turn around and get back below tree-line. The mountain will still be there tomorrow.
5) Don’t Hesitate to Call for Help When Needed
Sometimes, despite all our preparations, things still go wrong. You could trip and fall, get off-route, or just get exhausted and dehydrated. When disaster strikes, call for help – don’t hesitate. Many people fear major rescue fees associated with helicopter transport – in Colorado, and most other states, you are unlikely to be charged for search and rescue missions. Make sure you bring a phone, or better yet, a GPS/Satellite SOS device, so you can call for help when the time comes. If you ever find yourself questioning whether you need to use it, you probably do. Don’t hesitate – call for help.
About the Author: Alex Derr
Alex Derr is a mountaineer and blogger based in Denver Colorado. He is working to climb Colorado’s highest 100 peaks, and the 20 tallest peaks in California. He created The Next Summit to share advice, stories, history & reflections from the Colorado Rockies & Sierra Nevada. When not climbing, he is managing the Communications strategy at Visible Network Labs.